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review recu 2

 1. 

(1 point) The most dangerous enemies of humans are large animals, including other humans.
 

 2. 

(1 point) Certain bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists can pose a serious threat to humans.
 

 3. 

(1 point) The immune system consists of cells and tissues found throughout the body.
 

 4. 

(1 point) The mechanisms used by the body to detect and destroy pathogens can be specific or nonspecific.
 

 5. 

(1 point) Secretions of sweat and oil glands make the skin extremely basic, allowing it to be an effective barrier to infection.
 

 6. 

(1 point) Most pathogens can readily pass through mucous membranes.
 

 7. 

(1 point) Skin acts as one of the first of the immune system’s nonspecific defenses against pathogens.
 

 8. 

(1 point) Fevers above 103°F can have beneficial effects when the body is defending itself against pathogens.
 

 9. 

(1 point) When pathogens enter the body through a wound, they trigger an inflammatory response.
 

 10. 

(1 point) During the inflammatory response, red blood cells engulf foreign substances.
 

 11. 

(1 point) Interferon provides a specific defense against pathogens.
 

 12. 

(1 point) The complement system consists of about 20 different proteins that circulate in the blood and become active when they encounter certain pathogens.
 

 13. 

(1 point) Natural killer cells attack cells that have been infected by microbes, but not the microbes themselves.
 

 14. 

(1 point) Helper T cells are a type of macrophage.
 

 15. 

(1 point) Antigens are substances that the immune system recognizes as foreign.
 

 16. 

(1 point) Cytotoxic T cells and B cells are activated by interleukin-2, which is secreted by helper T cells.
 

 17. 

(1 point) The body possesses millions of different types of T cells, each of which bears unique receptor molecules that can recognize millions of different foreign proteins.
 

 18. 

(1 point) Cytotoxic T cells are able to recognize and attack virus-infected cells because the infected cells have been coated with a protein called interleukin-2.
 

 19. 

(1 point) B cells function by attacking and destroying body cells that have been infected by viruses.
 

 20. 

(1 point) Sneezing and shaking hands are not among the ways diseases are transmitted.
 

 21. 

(1 point) Meat, poultry, and eggs are potentially hazardous foods because they can be infected with pathogens.
 

 22. 

(1 point) Once you have developed the symptoms of a contagious disease, you probably cannot transmit it to anyone else.
 

 23. 

(1 point) Koch’s postulates are used to kill certain pathogens.
 

 24. 

(1 point) The first exposure to a pathogen results in a much faster immune response than the second exposure to the same pathogen.
 

 25. 

(1 point) If a pathogen that has already been defeated is encountered again, memory cells produce antibodies against it.
 

 26. 

(1 point) Vaccination triggers an immune response against the pathogen without symptoms of infection.
 

 27. 

(1 point) Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease affecting the thyroid gland.
 

 28. 

(1 point) AIDS is a disorder of the immune system.
 

 29. 

(1 point) Any person who is HIV-positive has the disease called AIDS.
 

 30. 

(1 point) AIDS patients often succumb to infections or cancers that are rare in healthy individuals.
 

 31. 

(1 point) The AIDS virus may remain dormant for 10 years or longer.
 

 32. 

(1 point) HIV can be transmitted through kissing.
 

 33. 

(1 point) Anyone infected with HIV must be an intravenous-drug user.
 

 34. 

(1 point) A disease-causing agent is called a(n)
a.
interferon.
c.
infection.
b.
pathogen.
d.
fungi.
 

 35. 

(1 point) The body’s first line of defense against infection includes all of the following except
a.
skin.
c.
acids in the stomach.
b.
mucous membranes.
d.
interleukin-1.
 

 36. 

(1 point) The skin repels pathogens
a.
by functioning as a barrier.
b.
by producing antibodies.
c.
with sweat, which contains the enzyme lysozyme.
d.
Both (a) and (c)
 

 37. 

(1 point) Mucous membranes
a.
cover all the body’s surfaces.
b.
line internal body surfaces that are in contact with the environment.
c.
produce antibodies to combat infection.
d.
secrete sweat, which has antibacterial enzymes.
 

 38. 

(1 point) Mucous membranes
a.
are moist epithelial layers that are impermeable to most pathogens.
b.
line the nasal passages, mouth, lungs, digestive tract, urethra, and vagina.
c.
contain glands that secrete mucus, a sticky fluid that traps pathogens.
d.
All of the above
 

 39. 

(1 point) The first line of defense against infection includes
a.
mucous membranes.
c.
killer T cells.
b.
neutrophils.
d.
antibodies.
 

 40. 

(1 point) All of the following possess mucous membranes except the
a.
digestive tract.
c.
nasal passages.
b.
surface of the skin.
d.
vagina.
 

 41. 

(1 point) Mucus is produced by the cells lining the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles
a.
only when a person has a severe respiratory infection.
b.
to allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood more efficiently.
c.
as a lubricant for the expulsion of food that might go “down the wrong tube.”
d.
to protect against microbes that might be inhaled.
 

 42. 

(1 point) The stomach is involved in defense against infection by
a.
regurgitating any pathogen that might be swallowed.
b.
secreting mucus that is carried away by cilia.
c.
secreting acid that destroys potential pathogens that are swallowed.
d.
sending potential pathogens to the liver for destruction.
 

 43. 

(1 point) Which of the following is a nonspecific defense against pathogens?
a.
B cells
c.
helper T cells
b.
antibodies
d.
the inflammatory response
 

 44. 

(1 point) When the inflammatory response is triggered,
a.
damaged or infected cells release chemical alarm signals.
b.
more fluid than normal leaks from capillaries near the injury, and swelling results.
c.
white blood cells attack invading pathogens.
d.
All of the above
 

 45. 

(1 point) When a puncture wound becomes infected,
a.
damaged cells release chemicals that promote the immune response.
b.
local blood vessels dilate.
c.
white blood cells move into the injured area.
d.
All of the above
 

 46. 

(1 point) Moderate fevers (below 39°C or 103°F)
a.
damage essential proteins in your body.
b.
inhibit the growth of pathogens and stimulate macrophage action.
c.
occur late in the disease process after the pathogen is almost eliminated.
d.
require emergency treatment.
 

 47. 

(1 point) The redness and swelling associated with an inflammatory response is caused by
a.
secretion of antibodies.
b.
dilation (expansion) of local blood vessels.
c.
complement activity.
d.
natural killer cells destroying bacteria.
 

 48. 

(1 point) redness and swelling : the inflammatory response ::
a.
increased blood flows : AIDS
b.
inflammatory response : membrane attack complex
c.
neutrophils : autoimmune disease
d.
temperature increase : temperature response
 

 49. 

(1 point) The protein that causes nearby cells to produce an enzyme that prevents viruses from making proteins and RNA is called
a.
interferon.
c.
mucus.
b.
complement.
d.
MAC.
 

 50. 

(1 point) White blood cells that ingest invading microbes and cellular debris resulting from microbial attacks are called
a.
macrophages.
c.
natural killer cells.
b.
neutrophils.
d.
complement cells.
 

 51. 

(1 point) Which of the following engulfs foreign cells?
a.
helper T cell
c.
macrophage
b.
B cell
d.
antibody
 

 52. 

(1 point) Neutrophils are responsible for
a.
ingesting individual microbes.
b.
destroying viruses.
c.
secreting toxic chemicals that kill bacteria.
d.
producing antibodies.
 

 53. 

(1 point) neutrophils : releasing chemicals ::
a.
macrophages : releasing chemicals
b.
natural killer cells : releasing chemicals
c.
natural killer cells : puncturing cell membranes
d.
macrophages : puncturing their membranes
 

 54. 

(1 point) All of the following are white blood cells that are involved in immune responses except
a.
B cells.
c.
macrophages.
b.
T cells.
d.
megakaryocytes.
 

 55. 

(1 point) Which of the following pairs is incorrectly associated?
a.
cytotoxic T cells—attack and kill infected cells
b.
helper T cells—activate cytotoxic T cells and B cells
c.
B cells—engulf cells that are infected with microbes
d.
macrophages—consume pathogens and infected cells
 

 56. 

(1 point) bacteria and viruses : pathogens ::
a.
B cells and T cells : mucous membrane cells
b.
helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells : skin cells
c.
cytotoxic T cells and macrophages : pathogens
d.
cytotoxic T cells and B cells : white blood cells
 

 57. 

(1 point) Once stimulated by antigens on the surface of macrophages, helper T cells may
a.
stimulate cytotoxic T cells to attack viruses directly.
b.
stimulate B cells to divide and develop into plasma cells.
c.
repair macrophages.
d.
cause fever.
 

 58. 

(1 point) The role of helper T cells in immune responses is to
a.
secrete interleukin-1.
b.
stimulate macrophages to initiate an “alarm signal.”
c.
initiate the activities of neutrophils.
d.
activate two different types of immune system cells.
 

 59. 

(1 point) Cytotoxic T cells recognize cells that have been infected by viruses
a.
only after the infected cells have been ingested by macrophages.
b.
because the infected cells have viral proteins on their surfaces.
c.
when the infected cells have been coated with complement.
d.
at the same time that neutrophils release their toxins into damaged tissue.
 

 60. 

(1 point) When B cells encounter a pathogen, they
a.
secrete interleukin-2, which stimulates cytotoxic T cells.
b.
divide and produce large amounts of antibody.
c.
initiate an inflammatory response.
d.
attack the cell by making a hole in its membrane.
 

 61. 

(1 point) The Y-shaped molecule that is produced by plasma cells upon exposure to a specific antigen and can bind to that antigen is called a(n)
a.
helper T cell.
c.
B cell.
b.
macrophage.
d.
antibody.
 

 62. 

(1 point) macrophages : helper T cells ::
a.
cytotoxic T cells : macrophages
b.
helper T cells : cytotoxic T cells and B cells
c.
B cells : cytotoxic T cells and macrophages
d.
mucous membranes cells : helper T cells and B cells
 

 63. 

(1 point) Ways you can avoid becoming ill include
a.
staying at home and only interacting with your family.
b.
taking lots of different medications before you get sick.
c.
washing your hands often.
d.
eating only vegetables.
 

 64. 

(1 point) Which of the following is not one of Koch’s postulates?
a.
When the isolated pathogen is injected into the healthy animal, the animal must develop the disease.
b.
The pathogen must be found in an animal with the disease and not in a healthy animal.
c.
The healthy animal must be shown to be susceptible to the pathogen before it is injected with the disease.
d.
The pathogen must be isolated from the sick animal and grown in a laboratory culture.
 

 65. 

(1 point) A few B cells that have encountered a pathogen
a.
become cytotoxic T cells.
b.
are ingested by macrophages.
c.
have viral protein on their cell membrane surface.
d.
become memory cells.
 

 66. 

(1 point) B cells
a.
sometimes remain in the blood for years.
b.
secrete antibodies.
c.
are stimulated by helper T cells.
d.
All of the above
 

 67. 

(1 point) After the initial immune response subsides, B cells that continue to patrol body tissues
a.
are called helper T cells.
c.
become memory cells.
b.
develop into phagocytes.
d.
cannot react to the original antigen.
 

 68. 

(1 point) Secondary exposure to a pathogen
a.
results in very rapid production of antibodies.
b.
stimulates memory cells to divide quickly.
c.
may result in destruction of the pathogen before the person knows he or she is infected.
d.
All of the above
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 69. 

(1 point) Refer to the illustration above. During which time period would the first antibodies to the pathogen be produced?
a.
Period A
c.
Period C
b.
Period B
d.
None of the above.
 

 70. 

(1 point) Refer to the illustration above. Which time period would be characterized by the most rapid division of B cells?
a.
Period A
c.
Period C
b.
Period B
d.
None of the above
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 71. 

(1 point) Refer to the illustration above. The most likely reason for Response 2 being greater than Response I in the graph is
a.
more bacteria entered at point C than at point A.
b.
memory cells were produced in Response I.
c.
antibodies from Response I were still in the blood.
d.
macrophages increased their production of antibodies.
 

 72. 

(1 point) John and James are identical twins. During the summer following their fifteenth birthday, they went on a vacation and stayed in a cabin with two of their cousins. One of the cousins came down with the chicken pox in the middle of the vacation. Chicken pox is caused by a virus. Two weeks later, John came down with chicken pox. James, however, never developed any symtoms of the disease. Which of the following is the best explanation for the different responses John and James had to exposure to the same disease.
a.
John and James are not really identical twins. James inherited an immunity to chicken pox but John did not.
b.
Even though John and James are identical twins, they produce different kinds of immune system cells. James had killer T cells that could recognize and destroy chicken pox viruses, while John did not.
c.
James had been exposed to chicken pox at an earlier age and developed the disease. His body produced memory cells that protected him from further infections of the disease. John did not get exposed to chicken pox at an earlier age.
d.
James had a cold at the time he was exposed to the chicken pox virus. The cold virus stimulated his body to produces lots of B cells, which were then also able to recognize and bind to the chicken pox viruses. John did not have a cold at the time he was exposed to the chicken pox.
 

 73. 

(1 point) Vaccines are effective in preventing disease because they
a.
interfere with the release of suppressor T cells.
b.
are antibodies directed against specific pathogens.
c.
contain specific B cells and T cells.
d.
trigger antibody formation.
 

 74. 

(1 point) Vaccines are produced from killed or weakened
a.
phagocytes.
c.
helper T cells.
b.
pathogens.
d.
B cells.
 

 75. 

(1 point) Autoimmune diseases occur when
a.
cells release antihistamine.
b.
a person is infected with HIV.
c.
the body manufactures “anti-self” antibodies.
d.
a person receives a blood transfusion of the wrong type.
 

 76. 

(1 point) An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the insulating material surrounding nerve cells in the brain, in the spinal cord, and in the nerves leading from the eyes to the brain is
a.
multiple sclerosis.
c.
Graves’ disease.
b.
rheumatoid arthritis.
d.
lupus erythematosus.
 

 77. 

(1 point) Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
a.
systemic lupus erythematosus
c.
rheumatoid arthritis
b.
multiple sclerosis
d.
influenza
 

 78. 

(1 point) Which of the following statements describes the actions of HIV?
a.
HIV attacks and cripples the immune system.
b.
HIV invades macrophages and helper T cells.
c.
HIV kills large numbers of helper T cells.
d.
All of the above
 

 79. 

(1 point) A person infected with HIV may
a.
develop the disease called AIDS.
b.
have viruses reproducing in helper T cells.
c.
be more susceptible to a variety of pathogens.
d.
All of the above
 

 80. 

(1 point) HIV causes AIDS by attacking and destroying
a.
helper T cells.
c.
neutrophils.
b.
B cells.
d.
antibodies.
 

 81. 

(1 point) The debilitating effects of AIDS are caused by the inability of the immune system to
a.
activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
c.
recognize and destroy infected cells.
b.
produce antibodies against pathogens.
d.
All of the above
 

 82. 

(1 point) HIV can be transmitted
a.
through sexual intercourse with an infected person.
b.
by breastfeeding.
c.
by sharing contaminated hypodermic needles and syringes.
d.
All of the above
 

 83. 

(1 point) An inappropriate immune system response against a nonpathogenic antigen is called a(n)
a.
autoimmune disease.
c.
allergic reaction.
b.
secondary immune reaction.
d.
vaccination reaction.
 

 84. 

(1 point) Which of the following is true about the release of histamine from cells in the nasal passages?
a.
It occurs during an allergic reaction.
b.
It causes nearby capillaries to swell.
c.
It may cause increased secretion by mucous membranes.
d.
All of the above
 

 85. 

(1 point) asthma attacks : narrowing of breathing passages ::
a.
antibodies : release of histamines
b.
allergy-causing antigens : release of histamines
c.
allergy-causing antigens : release of macrophages
d.
antihistamines : capillary swelling
 

 86. 

(1 point) Defense mechanisms used by the body to prevent infection can be either ____________________ or specific.
 

 

 87. 

(1 point) Most epithelial layers that line internal body surfaces and that are barriers to many pathogens are called ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 88. 

(1 point) The ____________________ acts as a barrier to keep foreign organisms and viruses out of the body.
 

 

 89. 

(1 point) Moderate ____________________, occurring in the early phases of an infection and caused by the release of interleukin-1, inhibits the growth of pathogens and stimulates macrophage action.
 

 

 90. 

(1 point) At the site of a splinter, redness, swelling, and an accumulation of pus would be signs of a(n) ____________________ response.
 

 

 91. 

(1 point) The ring-shaped structure of proteins that ruptures the cell membrane of pathogens is called a(n) ____________________ ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 92. 

(1 point) The ____________________ ____________________ consists of about 20 different proteins that circulate in the blood and become active when they encounter certain pathogens.
 

 

 93. 

(1 point) White blood cells that travel throughout the body, killing bacteria one at a time by ingesting them, are called ____________________.
 

 

 94. 

(1 point) Immune surveillance by ____________________ ____________________ cells is one of the body’s most potent defenses against cancer.
 

 

 95. 

(1 point) A substance that triggers an immune response is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 96. 

(1 point) The proteins that cover white blood cells of the immune system and bind to specific antigens are called ____________________ proteins.
 

 

 97. 

(1 point) Cells that release special defense proteins into the blood are called ____________________ cells.
 

 

 98. 

(1 point) An “alarm signal” is emitted by macrophages in the form of a protein called ____________________, which activates helper T cells.
 

 

 99. 

(1 point) Interleukin-2 is produced by ____________________ ____________________ cells.
 

 

 100. 

(1 point) B cells produce proteins called ____________________ that can mark pathogens for destruction.
 

 

 101. 

(1 point) To help prevent illnesses caused by bacteria found in potentially hazardous foods (such as meat, poultry, and eggs) these foods should always be ____________________ thoroughly.
 

 

 102. 

(1 point) The German physician who established a procedure for diagnosing causes of infection was ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 103. 

(1 point) The four-step procedure used by biologists as a guide to identify pathogens is called ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 104. 

(1 point) After a primary exposure to a pathogen, the bloodstream contains ____________________ cells that can be specifically recalled to defend against that particular pathogen.
 

 

 105. 

(1 point) The process by which a dead or disabled pathogen (or proteins from that pathogen) is introduced into the body so that an immune response results without an actual infection is called ____________________.
 

 

 106. 

(1 point) Resistance to a particular disease is called ____________________.
 

 

 107. 

(1 point) The branch of science that deals with antigens, antibodies, and immunity is called ____________________.
 

 

 108. 

(1 point) The English doctor who discovered the principles of vaccination was ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 109. 

(1 point) The process whereby viruses mutate over time and produce new antigens that the immune system does not recognize is called ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 110. 

(1 point) A disease in which the body’s immune system does not recognize its own body cells as being part of “self” is called a(n) ____________________ disease.
 

 

 111. 

(1 point) The ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ causes AIDS.
 

 

 112. 

(1 point) You can become infected with HIV if you receive HIV-infected ____________________ ____________________ cells, which are present in many body fluids.
 

 

 113. 

(1 point) The chemical released from mast cells during an allergic reaction is ____________________.
 

 

 114. 

(1 point) A(n) ____________________ is an inappropriate immune system response against a nonpathogenic antigen.
 

 

 115. 

(1 point) Describe three components of the first line of defense that the body uses to prevent infections.
 

 116. 

(1 point) Imagine a potential pathogen has been able to get through the skin, the first line of body defense. What four steps does the body use as a second line of defense to prevent the pathogen from initiating a major infection?
 

 117. 

(1 point) How do white blood cells recognize antigens?
 

 118. 

(1 point) Briefly describe how a cell that has been infected by a virus can be recognized and destroyed.
 

 119. 

(1 point) What are the five ways you can get infectious diseases?
 

 120. 

(1 point) Describe the experiment by Koch that led to his postulates.
 

 121. 

(1 point) What is the function of memory cells in an immune response?
 

 122. 

(1 point) Describe Jenner’s observations regarding smallpox and cowpox, his experiment, and the results.
 

 123. 

(1 point) HIV infection is a fatal infection, but victims are not always killed by the virus itself. They generally die from other diseases that a healthy individual can resist. Explain why this is true.
 

 124. 

(1 point) Do insects such as mosquitos and ticks transmit HIV? Explain.
 

 125. 

(1 point) If HIV has been found in saliva, why is it unlikely that a person can catch it by kissing someone who is infected?
 



 
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