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Chapter41

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

The elongated extension of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses is called an axon.
 

 2. 

The cells of the nervous system that conduct electrical signals are called nerve cells, or neurons.
 

 3. 

Many neurons have a layer of insulation called a myelin sheath that wraps around the axon.
 

 4. 

Myelin sheaths slow down nerve impulses.
 

 5. 

The potential of a resting neuron is positive.
 

 6. 

When a neuron is not conducting a nerve impulse, the neuron is said to be at rest.
 

 7. 

Neurons communicate with other cells by using neurotransmitters at synapses.
 

 8. 

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that carry nerve impulses across the synaptic cleft.
 

 9. 

A neurotransmitter may either excite or inhibit the cell it stimulates.
 

 10. 

The peripheral nervous system carries all the messages back and forth between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.
 

 11. 

The spinal cord and the brain make up the peripheral nervous system.
 

 12. 

Motor neurons that conduct impulses to skeletal muscles under our conscious control make up the limbic system.
 

 13. 

Most of the activity of the cerebrum occurs in the cerebral cortex.
 

 14. 

The spinal cord is a dense cable of nervous tissue that runs through the vertebral column.
 

 15. 

The spinal cord links the brain to the central nervous system (CNS).
 

 16. 

Some activity in the somatic nervous system, such as spinal reflexes, is involuntary.
 

 17. 

A spinal reflex is a self-protective motor response.
 

 18. 

Spinal reflexes are usually slow because they involve the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system.
 

 19. 

The peripheral motor neurons that regulate smooth muscles are part of the autonomic nervous system.
 

 20. 

Emotions are controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
 

 21. 

The sympathetic division decreases blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate.
 

 22. 

Pain receptors are located throughout all tissues and organs except the brain.
 

 23. 

Most of the pain receptors in the body are located in the brain.
 

 24. 

Processing sites for sensory systems tend to be localized in specific regions of the cerebrum.
 

 25. 

Rods are receptor cells that respond to bright light.
 

 26. 

Most visual processing takes place in the temporal lobe.
 

 27. 

Your ears help you maintain your balance.
 

 28. 

We hear by detecting vibrations in the ground.
 

 29. 

Taste buds located in the tongue are stimulated when a chemical dissolved in saliva binds to taste cells in the taste buds.
 

 30. 

Chemicals in the air stimulate olfactory receptors.
 

 31. 

The sense of smell affects the enjoyment of food.
 

 32. 

Cocaine acts by causing dopamine reuptake.
 

 33. 

Addiction to psychoactive drugs is a physiological response because addiction involves interactions of drug molecules with neurons and synapses.
 

 34. 

Enkephalins are natural pain relievers released by the body in response to pain and stress.
 

 35. 

Narcotics mimic the action of enkephalins.
 

 36. 

Alcohol is able to change the structure of a neuron’s membrane, changing the shape of receptor proteins.
 

 37. 

Nicotine mimics the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 38. 

“Antennae” that extend from a neuron and that receive information from other cells are called
a.
axons.
c.
synapses.
b.
cell bodies.
d.
dendrites.
 

 39. 

Nodes of Ranvier
a.
strengthen axons.
c.
occur in malfunctioning axons.
b.
slow nerve impulses.
d.
are gaps in the myelin sheath.
 

 40. 

The myelin sheath
a.
transmits impulses from one neuron to another.
b.
insulates synapses.
c.
nourishes neurons.
d.
insulates axons.
 

 41. 

unmyelinated axon : slow nerve impulses ::
a.
neuron : being composed of many axons
b.
nerve impulse : not traveling through axons
c.
myelinated axon : fast nerve impulses
d.
dendrite : sending information
 

 42. 

synapse : two neurons ::
a.
neuron : two cell bodies
c.
synapse : cell body and axon
b.
cell body : two axons
d.
axon : cell body and synapse
 

 43. 

Which of the following statements about the resting potential of a neuron is true?
a.
There are many times more sodium ions outside the neuron than inside.
b.
Sodium ions are in balance inside and outside the neuron.
c.
There are fewer potassium ions inside the neuron than outside.
d.
There are equal amounts of potassium and sodium ions inside and outside the neuron.
 

 44. 

After an action potential, the sodium-potassium pump helps
a.
rebuild axon fibers.
c.
cause a stimulus.
b.
restore the resting potential.
d.
All of the above
 

 45. 

When a neuron is at rest,
a.
sodium ions are most concentrated inside the cell.
b.
potassium ions are most concentrated inside the cell.
c.
the outside of the cell is negatively charged.
d.
All of the above
 

 46. 

A nerve impulse
a.
moves from the inside to the outside of an axon.
b.
moves from the outside to the inside of an axon.
c.
is the movement of an action potential along an axon.
d.
moves slowly.
 

 47. 

When an impulse moves down the axon,
a.
sodium ions first rush out of the cell.
b.
a small part of the axon momentarily reverses its polarity.
c.
the resting potential of the cell does not change.
d.
potassium ions are pumped into the axon.
 

 48. 

Neurotransmitters are
a.
electrical impulses.
b.
found only in neurons with myelin sheaths.
c.
released at synapses.
d.
produced by muscles.
 

 49. 

When neurotransmitters cross a synapse and open ion channels in the membrane of a postsynaptic neuron, which of the following happens?
a.
inhibition of impulses in the neuron
c.
initiation of an impulse in the neuron
b.
the death of the neuron
d.
Both (a) and (c)
 

 50. 

When a neurotransmitter is released from a presynaptic neuron, the neurotransmitter may
a.
become an enzyme in the space between the neurons.
b.
bind to membrane receptor proteins on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron.
c.
cover the membrane of the axon.
d.
cause the cell body of the postsynaptic neuron to enlarge.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 51. 

Refer to the illustration above. If neurotransmitters could not be cleared out of a synapse after transmitting a message,
a.
a postsynaptic neuron would continue to be stimulated for an indefinite period of time.
b.
the presynaptic neuron could not pass on its impulse.
c.
the postsynaptic neuron would not be stimulated.
d.
None of the above
 

 52. 

Refer to the illustration above. Label B indicates a
a.
neurotransmitter molecule.
c.
receptor protein.
b.
neuromodulator molecule.
d.
drug molecule.
 

 53. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which labeled object in the diagram would be responsible for removing neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft?
a.
B
c.
E
b.
C
d.
F
 

 54. 

Refer to the illustration above. The effect of the neurotransmitter might be prolonged by the presence of molecule
a.
B.
c.
E.
b.
D.
d.
F.
 

 55. 

Refer to the illustration above. When a drug blocks removal of a neurotransmitter from a synaptic cleft for a prolonged period,
a.
the postsynaptic neuron is overstimulated.
b.
the number of receptors on the postsynaptic neuron decreases.
c.
the only way to maintain normal functioning of the nerve pathway is to continue taking the drug.
d.
All of the above
 

 56. 

The central nervous system consists of
a.
the brain and spinal cord.
c.
the spinal cord only.
b.
spinal nerves only.
d.
the brain only.
 

 57. 

The peripheral nervous system
a.
is not linked to the central nervous system.
b.
provides pathways to and from the central nervous system.
c.
consists of the cerebellum and spinal cord.
d.
is composed of only motor neurons.
 

 58. 

Information is carried from the central nervous system to a muscle or gland by
a.
sensory neurons.
c.
motor neurons.
b.
sensory receptors.
d.
None of the above
 

 59. 

Motor neurons transmit messages
a.
to the brain.
b.
to the spinal cord.
c.
from the spinal cord to the brain.
d.
from the central nervous system to a muscle or gland.
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 60. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure B in the diagram is the
a.
spinal cord.
c.
cerebellum.
b.
brain stem.
d.
cerebrum.
 

 61. 

Refer to the illustration above. Hunger and thirst are regulated by structure
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 62. 

Refer to the illustration above. The cerebrum is labeled
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 63. 

Sensory neurons transmit messages
a.
from the central nervous system to a muscle or gland.
b.
from the brain to the spinal cord.
c.
to the spinal cord or brain.
d.
All of the above
 

 64. 

Gray matter consists of
a.
cell bodies of neurons.
c.
myelin.
b.
only synapses.
d.
axons.
 

 65. 

The spinal cord is linked to the peripheral nervous system through
a.
spinal nerves
c.
interneurons
b.
the thalamus
d.
All of the above
 

 66. 

A reflex
a.
is a sudden, involuntary movement of
b.
is not under conscious control.
c.
is not learned.muscles in response to a stimulus.
d.
All of the above
 

 67. 

When the ligament below the patella is tapped, the quadriceps contracts, the hamstrings relax, and the leg rapidly
a.
contracts
c.
extends
b.
relaxes
d.
None of the above
 

 68. 

The autonomic nervous system controls
a.
reflexes.
b.
voluntary movement.
c.
involuntary functions of the internal organs.
d.
locomotion.
 

 69. 

The division of the autonomic nervous system that keeps you breathing when you fall asleep is the ____ division.
a.
somatic
c.
sympathetic
b.
central
d.
parasympathetic
 

 70. 

Which of these is not a lobe of the brain?
a.
occipital
c.
auditory
b.
parietal
d.
temporal
 

 71. 

How many lobes are there in the brain?
a.
2
c.
6
b.
4
d.
8
 

 72. 

The layer of photoreceptors and neurons at the back of the eye is called the
a.
retina.
c.
iris.
b.
cochlea.
d.
optic nerve.
 

 73. 

Dim-light vision is detected by the
a.
cones.
c.
cornea.
b.
lens.
d.
rods.
 

 74. 

Sensory receptors essential for balance are located in the
a.
eyes.
c.
cochlea of the inner ear.
b.
eardrum.
d.
semicircular canals.
 

 75. 

Hair cells in the semicircular canals detect
a.
motion of the head.
c.
light.
b.
loudness.
d.
sounds.
 

 76. 

Ears
a.
function to detect sounds.
c.
detect only internal stimuli.
b.
help maintain your balance.
d.
Both (a) and (b)
 

 77. 

Specialized receptors that enable hearing are found in the
a.
cornea.
c.
cochlea.
b.
semicircular canals.
d.
cerebellum.
 

 78. 

When we hear,
a.
sound waves enter the ear canal and strike the eardrum.
b.
the membrane in the cochlea moves.
c.
the auditory nerve carries nerve impulses to the brain.
d.
All of the above
 

 79. 

Chemoreceptors that detect odors are called ____ receptors.
a.
auditory
c.
cone
b.
olfactory
d.
cochlea
 

 80. 

Psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine,
a.
affect the central nervous system by changing the activity of synapses.
b.
are usually not addictive.
c.
include only illegal drugs.
d.
All of the above
 

 81. 

Cocaine acts by
a.
preventing dopamine reuptake.
b.
affecting the limbic system, causing euphoria.
c.
overstimulating postsynaptic neurons.
d.
All of the above
 

 82. 

Narcotics affect the nervous system’s control of pain perception by
a.
blocking dopamine reabsorption.
c.
inhibiting dopamine production.
b.
mimicking cocaine.
d.
mimicking enkephalins.
 

 83. 

Nicotine in tobacco causes pleasurable feelings by
a.
blocking dopamine reabsorption.
b.
mimicking the action of acetylcholine.
c.
inhibiting a neurotransmitter similar to dopamine.
d.
mimicking enkephalins.
 

 84. 

The effects of alcohol on the human body include
a.
changes to the cell membrane of nerve cells.
b.
altered transmission of nerve signals.
c.
impaired coordination.
d.
All of the above
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 85. 

A(n) ____________________ is a cell that conducts electrical signals.
 

 

 86. 

Cytoplasmic extensions called ____________________ allow a neuron to receive information simultaneously from many different sources.
 

 

 87. 

Some axons are surrounded by an insulating structure called a(n) ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 88. 

The electrical charge across the membrane of a neuron is caused primarily by different concentrations of ____________________ and ____________________ ions inside and outside the cell.
 

 

 89. 

Messages are carried across synapses by signal molecules called ____________________.
 

 

 90. 

The junction of a neuron with another cell is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 91. 

The part of the nervous system that does not include the spinal cord and brain is known as the ____________________ nervous system.
 

 

 92. 

Nerves that control breathing, swallowing, heartbeat, and the diameter of the blood vessels are found in the ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 93. 

The thalamus, hypothalamus, and cells deep within the cerebral cortex of the brain make up the ____________________ system, which helps regulate emotions.
 

 

 94. 

A sudden, involuntary movement in response to a stimulus is called a(n) ____________________.
 

 

 95. 

The ____________________ division of the autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary functions during routine conditions.
 

 

 96. 

The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are the parasympathetic division and the ____________________ division.
 

 

 97. 

Sensory receptors that respond to tissue damage are called ____________________ receptors.
 

 

 98. 

Specialized neurons that detect sensory stimuli are called ____________________ receptors.
 

 

 99. 

Sensory neurons leading from each sense organ to the brain come together at a common region in the ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 100. 

The ____________________ is the light-sensing portion of the eye.
 

 

 101. 

When light enters the eye, it activates photoreceptors called ____________________ and ____________________.
 

 

 102. 

When light enters the eye, it first passes through the ____________________.
 

 

 103. 

Auditory processing takes place in the ____________________ lobe of the brain.
 

 

 104. 

The ____________________ is a small, snail-shaped structure of the inner ear lined with hair cells.
 

 

 105. 

The specialized sensory receptors found in the cochlea are called ____________________ cells.
 

 

 106. 

Olfactory receptors are located in the roof of the ____________________ passage.
 

 

 107. 

A(n) ____________________ ____________________ is a globular cluster of cells specialized to detect the four basic types of chemicals found in foods.
 

 

 108. 

Psychoactive drugs that decrease the activity of the central nervous system are called ____________________.
 

 

 109. 

Exposure to large amounts of a psychoactive drug over a prolonged period of time may cause a change in the functioning of synapses. The result of such exposure is called ____________________.
 

 

 110. 

Neurotransmitters released by the human body in response to pain are called ____________________.
 

 



 
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