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11th Grade

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Write the word to avoid confusion, if the letter looks like an F and T at the same time it will be considered wrong.
 

 1. 

(2 points) The elongated extension of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses is called an axon.
 

 2. 

(2 points) The cells of the nervous system that conduct electrical signals are called nerve cells, or neurons.
 

 3. 

(2 points) Many neurons have a layer of insulation called a myelin sheath that wraps around the axon.
 

 4. 

(2 points) Myelin sheaths slow down nerve impulses.
 

 5. 

(2 points) The potential of a resting neuron is positive.
 

 6. 

(2 points) Hormones are substances secreted by cells that act to regulate the activity of other cells in the body.
 

 7. 

(2 points) An endocrine gland secretes its product directly into the blood.
 

 8. 

(2 points) The pancreas is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland.
 

 9. 

(2 points) Amino-acid-based hormones are fat-soluble, while steroid hormones are water-soluble.
 

 10. 

(2 points) Amino-acid-based hormones pass through the cell membrane.
 

 11. 

(2 points) A goiter is the result of attempts by the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormones when the person is suffering from an iodine deficiency.
 

 12. 

(2 points) The inability of cells to take up glucose from blood is called diabetes mellitus.
 

 13. 

(1 point) When a neuron is not conducting a nerve impulse, the neuron is said to be at rest.
 

 14. 

(1 point) Neurons communicate with other cells by using neurotransmitters at synapses.
 

 15. 

(1 point) Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that carry nerve impulses across the synaptic cleft.
 

 16. 

(1 point) A neurotransmitter may either excite or inhibit the cell it stimulates.
 

 17. 

(1 point) The peripheral nervous system carries all the messages back and forth between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.
 

 18. 

(1 point) The spinal cord and the brain make up the peripheral nervous system.
 

 19. 

(1 point) Motor neurons that conduct impulses to skeletal muscles under our conscious control make up the limbic system.
 

 20. 

(1 point) Most of the activity of the cerebrum occurs in the cerebral cortex.
 

 21. 

(1 point) The spinal cord is a dense cable of nervous tissue that runs through the vertebral column.
 

 22. 

(1 point) The spinal cord links the brain to the central nervous system (CNS).
 

 23. 

(1 point) Some activity in the somatic nervous system, such as spinal reflexes, is involuntary.
 

 24. 

(1 point) A spinal reflex is a self-protective motor response.
 

 25. 

(1 point) Spinal reflexes are usually slow because they involve the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system.
 

 26. 

(1 point) The peripheral motor neurons that regulate smooth muscles are part of the autonomic nervous system.
 

 27. 

(1 point) Emotions are controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
 

 28. 

(1 point) The sympathetic division decreases blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate.
 

 29. 

(1 point) Pain receptors are located throughout all tissues and organs except the brain.
 

 30. 

(1 point) Most of the pain receptors in the body are located in the brain.
 

 31. 

(1 point) Processing sites for sensory systems tend to be localized in specific regions of the cerebrum.
 

 32. 

(1 point) Rods are receptor cells that respond to bright light.
 

 33. 

(1 point) Most visual processing takes place in the temporal lobe.
 

 34. 

(1 point) Your ears help you maintain your balance.
 

 35. 

(1 point) We hear by detecting vibrations in the ground.
 

 36. 

(1 point) Taste buds located in the tongue are stimulated when a chemical dissolved in saliva binds to taste cells in the taste buds.
 

 37. 

(1 point) Chemicals in the air stimulate olfactory receptors.
 

 38. 

(1 point) The sense of smell affects the enjoyment of food.
 

 39. 

(1 point) Cocaine acts by causing dopamine reuptake.
 

 40. 

(1 point) Addiction to psychoactive drugs is a physiological response because addiction involves interactions of drug molecules with neurons and synapses.
 

 41. 

(1 point) Enkephalins are natural pain relievers released by the body in response to pain and stress.
 

 42. 

(1 point) Narcotics mimic the action of enkephalins.
 

 43. 

(1 point) Alcohol is able to change the structure of a neuron’s membrane, changing the shape of receptor proteins.
 

 44. 

(1 point) Nicotine mimics the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
 

 45. 

(1 point) Hormones must travel through the bloodstream to reach the cell on which they must act.
 

 46. 

(1 point) The same hormone can tell different cells to perform different actions.
 

 47. 

(1 point) Organs and glands that produce most of the hormones in the body make up the endocrine system.
 

 48. 

(1 point) Although hormones are slow-acting, their effects tend to last for a long time.
 

 49. 

(1 point) Prostaglandins function much as hormones do in that they regulate cellular activities.
 

 50. 

(1 point) Hormones travel throughout the body in the bloodstream and can affect any cell.
 

 51. 

(1 point) Steroid hormones act from outside the cell by means of second messengers.
 

 52. 

(1 point) Steroid hormones bind to receptors located in a target cell’s cytoplasm or its nucleus.
 

 53. 

(1 point) When sufficient levels of testosterone are present in a male’s bloodstream, production is inhibited by a negative-feedback system.
 

 54. 

(1 point) In females, luteinizing hormone (LH) causes the release of an egg from the ovary.
 

 55. 

(1 point) Antidiuretic hormone causes the muscles of the uterus to contract during childbirth.
 

 56. 

(1 point) The ovary is the source of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
 

 57. 

(1 point) The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones, and the adrenal medulla produces amino-acid-based hormones.
 

 58. 

(1 point) Estrogens stimulate the development of secondary female sex characteristics.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Circle the letter also to avoid confusing letters, if I’m not able to read a letter like a “d” that looks like an “a” I will mark it wrong
 

 59. 

(2 points) “Antennae” that extend from a neuron and that receive information from other cells are called
a.
axons.
c.
synapses.
b.
cell bodies.
d.
dendrites.
 

 60. 

(2 points) Nodes of Ranvier
a.
strengthen axons.
c.
occur in malfunctioning axons.
b.
slow nerve impulses.
d.
are gaps in the myelin sheath.
 

 61. 

(2 points) The myelin sheath
a.
transmits impulses from one neuron to another.
b.
insulates synapses.
c.
nourishes neurons.
d.
insulates axons.
 

 62. 

(2 points) Which of the following statements about the resting potential of a neuron is true?
a.
There are many times more sodium ions outside the neuron than inside.
b.
Sodium ions are in balance inside and outside the neuron.
c.
There are fewer potassium ions inside the neuron than outside.
d.
There are equal amounts of potassium and sodium ions inside and outside the neuron.
 

 63. 

(2 points) After an action potential, the sodium-potassium pump helps
a.
rebuild axon fibers.
c.
cause a stimulus.
b.
restore the resting potential.
d.
All of the above
 

 64. 

(2 points) When a neuron is at rest,
a.
sodium ions are most concentrated inside the cell.
b.
potassium ions are most concentrated inside the cell.
c.
the outside of the cell is negatively charged.
d.
All of the above
 

 65. 

(2 points) A nerve impulse
a.
moves from the inside to the outside of an axon.
b.
moves from the outside to the inside of an axon.
c.
is the movement of an action potential along an axon.
d.
moves slowly.
 

 66. 

(2 points) When an impulse moves down the axon,
a.
sodium ions first rush out of the cell.
b.
a small part of the axon momentarily reverses its polarity.
c.
the resting potential of the cell does not change.
d.
potassium ions are pumped into the axon.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 67. 

(2 points) Refer to the illustration above. Structure B in the diagram is the
a.
spinal cord.
c.
cerebellum.
b.
brain stem.
d.
cerebrum.
 

 68. 

(2 points) Refer to the illustration above. Hunger and thirst are regulated by structure
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 69. 

(2 points) Refer to the illustration above. The cerebrum is labeled
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 70. 

(2 points) Sensory neurons transmit messages
a.
from the central nervous system to a muscle or gland.
b.
from the brain to the spinal cord.
c.
to the spinal cord or brain.
d.
All of the above
 

 71. 

(2 points) When the ligament below the patella is tapped, the quadriceps contracts, the hamstrings relax, and the leg rapidly
a.
contracts
c.
extends
b.
relaxes
d.
None of the above
 

 72. 

(2 points) The division of the autonomic nervous system that keeps you breathing when you fall asleep is the ____ division.
a.
somatic
c.
sympathetic
b.
central
d.
parasympathetic
 

 73. 

(2 points) Which of these is not a lobe of the brain?
a.
occipital
c.
auditory
b.
parietal
d.
temporal
 

 74. 

(2 points) How many lobes are there in the brain?
a.
2
c.
6
b.
4
d.
8
 

 75. 

(2 points) The autonomic nervous system controls
a.
reflexes.
b.
voluntary movement.
c.
involuntary functions of the internal organs.
d.
locomotion.
 

 76. 

(2 points) Hormones are essential to maintaining homeostasis mainly because
a.
they catalyze specific chemical reactions in brain cells.
b.
the body requires them for digesting food.
c.
they cause specific responses in specific cells.
d.
they act faster than nerve impulses.
 

 77. 

(2 points) If an amino-acid-based hormone acts as a “first messenger,” then this molecule acts as a “second messenger.”
a.
steroid hormone
c.
receptor protein
b.
cyclic AMP
d.
glucagon
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 78. 

(4 points) Refer to the diagram above. The pituitary gland is indicated by gland
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 79. 

(4 points) Refer to the diagram above. Growth hormone is produced by gland
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 80. 

(4 points) Refer to the diagram above. The gland that is stimulated during emergency situations (causing the “fight-or-flight” response) is gland
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 81. 

(4 points) Refer to the diagram above. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a defect in the functioning of gland
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 82. 

(4 points) Refer to the diagram above. The gland that produces the hormone insulin is gland
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 83. 

(1 point) Refer to the diagram above. Development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics are mainly stimulated by secretions of gland
a.
A.
c.
C.
b.
B.
d.
D.
 

 84. 

(1 point) Refer to the diagram above. Testosterone is produced by gland
a.
A.
c.
E.
b.
B.
d.
All of the above
 

 85. 

(1 point) unmyelinated axon : slow nerve impulses ::
a.
neuron : being composed of many axons
b.
nerve impulse : not traveling through axons
c.
myelinated axon : fast nerve impulses
d.
dendrite : sending information
 

 86. 

(1 point) synapse : two neurons ::
a.
neuron : two cell bodies
c.
synapse : cell body and axon
b.
cell body : two axons
d.
axon : cell body and synapse
 

 87. 

(1 point) Neurotransmitters are
a.
electrical impulses.
b.
found only in neurons with myelin sheaths.
c.
released at synapses.
d.
produced by muscles.
 

 88. 

(1 point) When neurotransmitters cross a synapse and open ion channels in the membrane of a postsynaptic neuron, which of the following happens?
a.
inhibition of impulses in the neuron
c.
initiation of an impulse in the neuron
b.
the death of the neuron
d.
Both (a) and (c)
 

 89. 

(1 point) When a neurotransmitter is released from a presynaptic neuron, the neurotransmitter may
a.
become an enzyme in the space between the neurons.
b.
bind to membrane receptor proteins on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron.
c.
cover the membrane of the axon.
d.
cause the cell body of the postsynaptic neuron to enlarge.
 
 
nar003-1.jpg
 

 90. 

(1 point) Refer to the illustration above. If neurotransmitters could not be cleared out of a synapse after transmitting a message,
a.
a postsynaptic neuron would continue to be stimulated for an indefinite period of time.
b.
the presynaptic neuron could not pass on its impulse.
c.
the postsynaptic neuron would not be stimulated.
d.
None of the above
 

 91. 

(1 point) Refer to the illustration above. Label B indicates a
a.
neurotransmitter molecule.
c.
receptor protein.
b.
neuromodulator molecule.
d.
drug molecule.
 

 92. 

(1 point) Refer to the illustration above. Which labeled object in the diagram would be responsible for removing neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft?
a.
B
c.
E
b.
C
d.
F
 

 93. 

(1 point) Refer to the illustration above. The effect of the neurotransmitter might be prolonged by the presence of molecule
a.
B.
c.
E.
b.
D.
d.
F.
 

 94. 

(1 point) Refer to the illustration above. When a drug blocks removal of a neurotransmitter from a synaptic cleft for a prolonged period,
a.
the postsynaptic neuron is overstimulated.
b.
the number of receptors on the postsynaptic neuron decreases.
c.
the only way to maintain normal functioning of the nerve pathway is to continue taking the drug.
d.
All of the above
 

 95. 

(1 point) The central nervous system consists of
a.
the brain and spinal cord.
c.
the spinal cord only.
b.
spinal nerves only.
d.
the brain only.
 

 96. 

(1 point) The peripheral nervous system
a.
is not linked to the central nervous system.
b.
provides pathways to and from the central nervous system.
c.
consists of the cerebellum and spinal cord.
d.
is composed of only motor neurons.
 

 97. 

(1 point) Information is carried from the central nervous system to a muscle or gland by
a.
sensory neurons.
c.
motor neurons.
b.
sensory receptors.
d.
None of the above
 

 98. 

(1 point) Motor neurons transmit messages
a.
to the brain.
b.
to the spinal cord.
c.
from the spinal cord to the brain.
d.
from the central nervous system to a muscle or gland.
 

 99. 

(1 point) Gray matter consists of
a.
cell bodies of neurons.
c.
myelin.
b.
only synapses.
d.
axons.
 

 100. 

(1 point) The spinal cord is linked to the peripheral nervous system through
a.
spinal nerves
c.
interneurons
b.
the thalamus
d.
All of the above
 

 101. 

(1 point) A reflex
a.
is a sudden, involuntary movement of
b.
is not under conscious control.
c.
is not learned.muscles in response to a stimulus.
d.
All of the above
 

 102. 

(1 point) The layer of photoreceptors and neurons at the back of the eye is called the
a.
retina.
c.
iris.
b.
cochlea.
d.
optic nerve.
 

 103. 

(1 point) Dim-light vision is detected by the
a.
cones.
c.
cornea.
b.
lens.
d.
rods.
 

 104. 

(1 point) Sensory receptors essential for balance are located in the
a.
eyes.
c.
cochlea of the inner ear.
b.
eardrum.
d.
semicircular canals.
 

 105. 

(1 point) Hair cells in the semicircular canals detect
a.
motion of the head.
c.
light.
b.
loudness.
d.
sounds.
 

 106. 

(1 point) Ears
a.
function to detect sounds.
c.
detect only internal stimuli.
b.
help maintain your balance.
d.
Both (a) and (b)
 

 107. 

(1 point) Specialized receptors that enable hearing are found in the
a.
cornea.
c.
cochlea.
b.
semicircular canals.
d.
cerebellum.
 

 108. 

(1 point) When we hear,
a.
sound waves enter the ear canal and strike the eardrum.
b.
the membrane in the cochlea moves.
c.
the auditory nerve carries nerve impulses to the brain.
d.
All of the above
 

 109. 

(1 point) Chemoreceptors that detect odors are called ____ receptors.
a.
auditory
c.
cone
b.
olfactory
d.
cochlea
 

 110. 

(1 point) Psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine,
a.
affect the central nervous system by changing the activity of synapses.
b.
are usually not addictive.
c.
include only illegal drugs.
d.
All of the above
 

 111. 

(1 point) Cocaine acts by
a.
preventing dopamine reuptake.
b.
affecting the limbic system, causing euphoria.
c.
overstimulating postsynaptic neurons.
d.
All of the above
 

 112. 

(1 point) Narcotics affect the nervous system’s control of pain perception by
a.
blocking dopamine reabsorption.
c.
inhibiting dopamine production.
b.
mimicking cocaine.
d.
mimicking enkephalins.
 

 113. 

(1 point) Nicotine in tobacco causes pleasurable feelings by
a.
blocking dopamine reabsorption.
b.
mimicking the action of acetylcholine.
c.
inhibiting a neurotransmitter similar to dopamine.
d.
mimicking enkephalins.
 

 114. 

(1 point) The effects of alcohol on the human body include
a.
changes to the cell membrane of nerve cells.
b.
altered transmission of nerve signals.
c.
impaired coordination.
d.
All of the above
 

 115. 

(1 point) Hormones are
a.
chemicals that stimulate nerve cells during times of stress.
b.
the same as electrical nerve impulses.
c.
released into the bloodstream or the fluid around cells.
d.
neurons along which messages travel.
 

 116. 

(1 point) Which of the following is a function of hormones?
a.
react to stimuli from outside the body
b.
coordinate the production and use of energy
c.
maintain nutrition and metabolism
d.
All of the above
 

 117. 

(1 point) All endocrine glands secrete hormones
a.
directly into the bloodstream or fluid around cells.
b.
that go to the pituitary gland.
c.
that affect every cell near the gland.
d.
that are lipid molecules.
 

 118. 

(1 point) Which of the following organs contains cells that have an endocrine function?
a.
brain
c.
small intestine
b.
stomach
d.
All of the above
 

 119. 

(1 point) Nearly instantaneous responses to changes in the environment
a.
are impossible.
b.
result from activation of the endocrine system.
c.
involve the activity of the nervous system.
d.
require messages from the pituitary gland.
 

 120. 

(1 point) A disadvantage of nervous signals, which is not true of hormonal messages, is that
a.
nerve transmissions reach many cells at once.
b.
nerve cells send messages at a much slower rate than do hormones.
c.
the effects of nervous signals last for only a short time.
d.
they take a long time to reach their target cell.
 

 121. 

(1 point) Modified fatty acids that tend to accumulate in areas of tissue disturbance or injury are
a.
endorphins.
c.
neuromodulators.
b.
enkephalins.
d.
prostaglandins.
 

 122. 

(1 point) All of the following are hormonelike chemical signal molecules except
a.
steroids.
c.
neurotransmitters.
b.
neuropeptides.
d.
prostaglandins.
 

 123. 

(1 point) Prostaglandins
a.
are transported throughout the body through the blood.
b.
are produced by the hypothalamus.
c.
act locally.
d.
are not considered hormones since they function very differently from them.
 

 124. 

(1 point) In order for a hormone to work,
a.
it must reach its target cell.
c.
Both (a) and (b)
b.
it must bind to a receptor protein.
d.
None of the above
 

 125. 

(1 point) When a hormone binds to a receptor,
a.
the receptor protein changes shape.
b.
the activity or amounts of enzymes in the cell eventually change.
c.
the chemical reactions inside the cell eventually change.
d.
All of the above
 

 126. 

(1 point) endocrine glands : hormones ::
a.
neurons : neurotransmitters
c.
all cells : neurotransmitters
b.
neurons : hormones
d.
all cells : hormones
 

 127. 

(1 point) When an amino-acid-based hormone acts on a target cell,
a.
it binds to a receptor in the plasma of the cell.
b.
it passes through the cell membrane.
c.
it eventually results in the activation of a “second messenger.”
d.
the hormone is converted to a steroid.
 

 128. 

(1 point) Which of the following is an example of an amino-acid-based hormone?
a.
receptor protein
c.
glycogen
b.
estrogen
d.
glucagon
 

 129. 

(1 point) Amino-acid-based hormones
a.
send messages from outside the cell.
b.
are carried into the cell by channel proteins.
c.
combine with steroid hormones in order to activate cells.
d.
cannot dissolve in polar molecules.
 

 130. 

(1 point) Since steroid hormones are fat soluble, they
a.
attach only to fat receptor molecules.
b.
cannot enter the target cell.
c.
activate only fat cells.
d.
pass through the cell membranes of their target cells.
 

 131. 

(1 point) A substance that functions by affecting the activities of genes in a target cell is a(n)
a.
carbohydrate.
c.
amino-acid-based hormone
b.
steroid hormone.
d.
second messenger.
 

 132. 

(1 point) A hormone receptor protein found inside the cytoplasm of a cell may
a.
attach to cyclic AMP.
c.
synthesize DNA.
b.
combine with a steroid hormone.
d.
act as a second messenger.
 

 133. 

(1 point) amino-acid-based hormones : cell membrane receptors ::
a.
receptor proteins : DNA
c.
steroid hormones : DNA
b.
cyclic AMP : steroid hormones
d.
amino-acid-based hormones : RNA
 

 134. 

(1 point) The organ that plays a role in feedback by removing hormones from the blood and breaking them down is the
a.
pancreas.
c.
liver.
b.
kidney.
d.
small intestine.
 

 135. 

(1 point) Hormones produced by the pituitary gland
a.
are regulated by secretions from the hypothalamus.
b.
control the activity of other endocrine glands.
c.
are produced as the result of stimulation by releasing hormones.
d.
All of the above.
 

 136. 

(1 point) Until recently, the pituitary gland was called the “master gland.” This name is no longer used because
a.
it was recently discovered that the pituitary gland does not actually do anything.
b.
the hypothalamus is responsible for controlling the activity of the pituitary gland.
c.
the pituitary gland controls the hypothalamus, which in turn controls the other glands.
d.
hormones of the other endocrine glands of the body activate the pituitary gland.
 

 137. 

(1 point) Scientists once thought that the pituitary gland was the regulatory center of the endocrine system. They now think that a structure in the brain, the hypothalamus, acts as this regulatory center. Which of the following does not provide information supporting this new conclusion?
a.
The hypothalamus can send nerve signals to other parts of the brain.
b.
The hypothalamus produces and secretes hormones.
c.
Hormones produced by the hypothalamus stimulate or inhibit the release of other hormones by the pituitary gland.
d.
Blood vessels have been found that connect the hypothalamus with the pituitary gland.
 

 138. 

(1 point) The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
a.
secretes releasing hormones that stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
b.
produces and secretes certain steroid hormones.
c.
stores and releases hormones made in the hypothalamus.
d.
is responsible for producing and secreting seven amino-acid-based hormones.
 

 139. 

(1 point) All of the following are produced by the pituitary gland except
a.
prolactin.
c.
oxytocin.
b.
growth hormone.
d.
parathyroid hormone.
 

 140. 

(1 point) Which of the following are mismatched?
a.
oxytocin—hypothalamus
c.
glucagon—pancreas
b.
insulin—pancreas
d.
calcitonin—pituitary gland
 

 141. 

(1 point) The body’s normal metabolic rate is regulated by
a.
thyroid hormones.
c.
metaboloxin.
b.
epinephrine.
d.
prolactin.
 

 142. 

(1 point) Thyroid hormones
a.
stimulate cell metabolism and growth.
b.
slow growth of their target cells.
c.
stimulate synthesis of DNA.
d.
bind to receptor molecules on the target cell’s surface.
 

 143. 

(1 point) When the level of calcium in the blood drops,
a.
one should immediately drink at least two eight-ounce glasses of milk.
b.
the parathyroid glands secrete a hormone that causes the release of calcium from the bone into the blood.
c.
the thyroid gland releases calcium into the blood.
d.
All of the above
 

 144. 

(1 point) Excessive production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland is the cause of the disease called
a.
hypothyroidism.
c.
hyperthyroidism.
b.
diabetes mellitus.
d.
gigantism.
 

 145. 

(1 point) Low levels of thyroid hormones cause the disease known as
a.
hypothyroidism.
c.
Graves’ disease.
b.
diabetes mellitus.
d.
gigantism.
 

 146. 

(1 point) In adults, hypothyroidism can cause
a.
nervousness.
c.
increased blood sugar.
b.
weight loss.
d.
lack of energy.
 

 147. 

(1 point) parathyroid gland : PTH ::
a.
thyroid gland : thyroid hormones
c.
pituitary gland : insulin
b.
pancreas : estrogen
d.
adrenal gland : FSH
 

 148. 

(1 point) A goiter can result from a lack of
a.
iodine.
c.
vasopressin.
b.
insulin.
d.
sodium ions.
 

 149. 

(1 point) Parathyroid hormone is important for survival because it
a.
stimulates the body’s metabolic rate.
b.
regulates the amount of calcium in the blood.
c.
causes the heart to contract and pump blood.
d.
increases the excretion of calcium by the kidneys.
 

 150. 

(1 point) epinephrine : initial reaction to stress ::
a.
norepinephrine : milk production
c.
aldosterone : readiness for “flight”
b.
aldosterone : readiness to “fight”
d.
PTH : blood calcium level
 

 151. 

(1 point) increase in blood-glucose level : glucagon release ::
a.
calcitonin production : low blood-calcium level
b.
PTH production : high blood-calcium level
c.
hyperthyroidism : overproduction of thyroid hormones
d.
hypothyroidism : overproduction of thyroid hormones
 

 152. 

(1 point) aldosterone and PTH : fluid retrieval from the body ::
a.
cortisol and adrenaline : loss of sodium and potassium
b.
cortisol and PTH : loss of potassium
c.
epinephrine and norepinephrine : initial response to stress
d.
epinephrine and norepinephrine : potassium ions to be excreted in urine
 

 153. 

(1 point) All of the following are steroid hormones except
a.
progesterone.
c.
epinephrine.
b.
estrogen.
d.
testosterone.
 

 154. 

(1 point) Which of the following are mismatched?
a.
oxytocin—uterus
c.
parathyroid hormone—bones
b.
antidiuretic hormone—kidneys
d.
insulin—hypothalamus
 

 155. 

(1 point) The islets of Langerhans in the pancreas are responsible for
a.
production of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
b.
making hormones that regulate blood sugar levels.
c.
regulating calcium levels in the blood and in the bones.
d.
controlling the amount of iodine that reaches the thyroid gland.
 

 156. 

(1 point) An increase in which hormone raises the blood sugar level?
a.
glucagon
c.
oxytocin
b.
insulin
d.
vasopressin
 

 157. 

(1 point) In a person with diabetes mellitus, even though blood glucose levels may be high,
a.
glycogen is stored in large quantities.
c.
cells do not receive glucose.
b.
insulin levels still increase.
d.
None of the above
 

 158. 

(1 point) Individuals with type 2 diabetes
a.
require daily injections of insulin.
b.
suffer from an autoimmune disorder that attacks the islets of Langerhans.
c.
have an abnormally low number of insulin receptors on their cell membranes.
d.
exhibit especially low levels of insulin in their blood.
 

 159. 

(1 point) The hormone that seems to be released as a response to darkness is
a.
melatonin.
c.
oxytocin.
b.
calcitonin.
d.
testosterone.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 160. 

(1 point) A(n) ____________________ is a cell that conducts electrical signals.
 

 

 161. 

(1 point) Cytoplasmic extensions called ____________________ allow a neuron to receive information simultaneously from many different sources.
 

 

 162. 

(1 point) Some axons are surrounded by an insulating structure called a(n) ____________________ ____________________.
 

 

 163. 

(1 point) The electrical charge across the membrane of a neuron is caused primarily by different concentrations of ____________________ and ____________________ ions inside and outside the cell.
 

 



 
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